– BARCODE
Barcodes are simple symbols of the encoded information which may be read by computers and similar devices.
More technically speaking, it is a set of black lines of different thicknesses arranged side by side. A barcode
is a method which consists of vertical lines and spaces of varying thickness and is used to automatically transfer
data to another medium without errors.
The barcode is a symbol which we can encounter in almost many places today. It is possible to see barcodes on
magazines, cigarettes, biscuits, chewing gums, computers and many other products. The barcode is actually made
to make it easier for computers and similar devices to read the coding. Barcode readers are used to transfer the
barcode information to the computer. These barcode readers scan the barcode lines, decode the coding system and
transfer the code to the computer.
Barcode registration means that a company is included in the barcode system. Every company which desires to use
barcodes should be a member of this system. It does not matter whether you are a natural or legal person to obtain
a barcode number.
Barcode numbers in Turkey start with 869. This is the country code. This is followed by the company code, which
usually consists of 6 digits. This is the part allocated to the company. The company determines which digits the
next 3-digit product code will consist of, within the range of 001-999. A separate barcode number can be given to
999 kinds of products. If the number of products of the company exceeds 1000, 10000 or 100000 different barcode
numbers are allocated.

OVERALL PROPERTY RIGHTS

– DEFINITION, PURPOSE, SCOPE

The general definition of the concept of “Industrial Property” is a definition of an intangible right which enables the
inventions, novelties, new designs and specific works in the industry and agriculture to be recorded in the name of
the first practitioners thereof or in the name of the owners of the signs on the goods manufactured and sold
commercially, which allow the manufacturer or seller thereof to be distinguished, and hence allows the first
practitioners to have a right to produce and sell the product for a certain period of time. Industrial Property
rights include patents and utility models, trademarks, industrial designs, geographical indications and
topographies of integrated circuits. Industrial property rights are the intangible rights.

– HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

Given the historical process, the countries have been observed to use two different systems to protect the industrial
property rights, namely production-based industrial property rights (privileges) and product-based industrial
property rights (patents). Countries that have completed their industrialization with industrial property based
on privileged production have switched to the production-based industrial property, that is, the patent system.

Although there is no definite consensus on whether the first patent was granted in Venice, Florence or England;
According to some, the document given to the famous architect and inventor Filippo Brunelleschi in 1421 in the
Republic of Florence for the ship he designed to transport “Carrara marble” for his famous architectural work
“Duomo of Florence” is the first real patent. According to some, it is a document given to John Utyman in 1449
by King Henry VI, which provides a 20-year protection for a glassmaking process used by the Venetians, but not
known in England.

In short, it is not possible to assign the first patent to a certain country. But the first patent law on which everyone
agreed is the patent law adopted by the Republic of Venice on March 19, 1474.

The Monopoly Law, which forms the basis of modern patent laws today, has remained in force for many years
without any change.
In 1790, patent law came into effect in the USA. Immediately after, the patent law was enacted in France in 1791.
While the technology developed at an unprecedented pace, Patent laws began to appear in other countries in
the world one by one. Patent laws came into force in Russia in 1815, in Italy in 1864, in Germany in 1877,
and in Japan in 1885.

While the monopoly rights and patent laws came out one after another in the world, the Ottoman Empire did not
stay away from this either and became one of the first countries to make regulations in the field of industrial
property rights.

Legal regulations similar to those in Europe in the field of industrial property in our country date back to the
1870s. The “Regulations on Trademarks for Goods” dated 1871 and the “Patent Law” dated 1879 constitute the
basis of legal protection in our country in terms of trademarks and patents. With these regulations, Turkey ranks
first among the countries that provide protection for the industrial property rights.

During the first years of the Republic, the protection of industrial property rights was also important, and “Paris
Convention on the Establishment of an International Union for the Protection of Industrial Property” was
participated in 1925.
The fact that the “Trademark Law” No. 551 was entered into force in 1965 and the “Convention Establishing the
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)” was participated in 1976 was among the important steps in the
field of the industrial property rights protection in Turkey.

The establishment of the Turkish Patent Institute (TPI), which is affiliated to the Ministry of Industry and Trade and
has administrative and financial autonomy, on June 24, 1994, with the Decree Law No. 544, has been a milestone in
the field of industrial property rights. “The Law No. 5000 on the Establishment and Duties of the Turkish Patent
Institute” entered into force on 19 November 2003 in order to harmonize the Decree Law No. 544 with today’s
conditions and toenact the same. The name of the Institution was changed to “Turkish Patent and Trademark
Office” and its short name to “TÜRKPATENT” with the Industrial Property Law dated 22 December 2016 and
numbered 6769.

During the customs union preparation process, the decree laws of a reform characteristic in the fields of patent,
trademark, industrial design and geographical indications were put into effect under the leadership of
TÜRKPATENT in 1995 in order for Turkey to meet the liabilities arising from the “Agreement Establishing the
World Trade Organization (WTO)” and the annex thereof “Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
Treaty” (TRIPS), and the European Union and Customs Union. The legal legislation in the field of Industrial
Property Rights has been completed with the legalization of the Law on the Protection of Integrated Circuit
Topographies dated 22.04.2004 and numbered 5147.

However, based on the principle that the industrial property right is considered as one of the fundamental rights
and that the fundamental rights cannot be regulated by the Decree-Law according to our Constitution, there have
been significant annulments in the articles of the Decree-Law, especially the provisions on penalties, which will
affect the industrial property system. The Decree-Laws issued separately for the trademarks, patents, designs and
geographical indications were gathered under a single roof by the Industrial Property Law No.6769 which has been
prepared to fill the legal gap caused by the annulments, to switch to a more effectively functioning industrial property
system, especially to increase the quality of patents, utility models and designs, and came into effect on January 10, 2017.